Globalization is about integrating people, economies and governments. It has been around for centuries—going back to the silk trade between Europe and China—and permeates almost every aspect of life and business. From 1948 to 2007, just prior to the Lehman Financial Crisis of 2008, world trade increased from $59 billion to almost $14 trillion. 카지노사이트
Despite its pervasiveness—or, perhaps, because of it—globalization remains deeply contentious. Supporters argue that globalization provides less-developed countries with market access and opportunity to grow their economies. Detractors, meanwhile, argue that globalization allows multinational companies to cross borders freely in pursuit of private interests, usually at the expense of domestic enterprises. But as Kofi Annan, former secretary general of the United Nations, has pointed out: “Arguing against globalization is like arguing against the law of gravity.”
The automotive industry is greatly impacted by globalization, especially since trade in manufactured goods has outpaced traditional sectors such as mining and agriculture. Exports of automotive products grew explosively from $319 billion in 1990 to $1.18 trillion in 2007. Auto parts trade, in particular, expanded over six times from $109 billion to $680 billion in almost the same period.
Institutions like World Trade Organization and International Monetary Fund have long promoted globalization. Customs unions and regional trade blocs such as the European Union, Mercosur, Association of South East Asian Nations, Gulf Cooperation Council, and East African Community also drive—or have resulted from—globalization. A number of free-trade agreements (FTA) have also been inked to formalize globalization protocols: North American FTA, ASEAN FTA, China-Thailand FTA and Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement, among others.
Auto companies like Kia take pride in having expanded their manufacturing operation around the world. PHOTO BY VERNON B. SARNE
Automotive production has also shifted significantly elsewhere. From 2007 to 2013, production in China grew by a stunning 149%. India expanded by 72%. In the same period, Italy declined by 49%, and France by 42%. It can be argued that these investment flows follow the movement of vehicle demand. Nonetheless, it reflects the readiness—and ease—of capital to flow to markets with rising business opportunities, a hallmark of globalization. 바카라사이트
In ASEAN, investments by auto companies have also been on the uptrend. This resulted partly from the growth in motorization and partly because of manufacturing incentives initiated by government to promote new technologies and local industry. Sales in the region climbed from 1.9 million units in 2007 to 3.2 million in 2016. Likewise, special local manufacture programs—Thailand’s Eco Car Program, Indonesia’s Low Cost Green Car Program, Malaysia’s Energy Efficient Vehicle Program, and the Philippines’ Comprehensive Automotive Resurgence Strategy—encourage investment dollars their way. So government policy is clearly another key driver of globalization. 온라인카지노
Globalization has trounced trade protectionism and nationalization. Developing countries are especially inclined to promote local auto manufacturing because of the significant gains it offers: jobs, taxes, technology transfer, component manufacturing. In ASEAN, for example, it used to be that strict localization and tariff regulations made building a factory in one country a given. Local production was the only way to go. But when the ASEAN Industrial Cooperation scheme and, eventually, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff came into effect, tariff barriers dropped to 5% or even 0%. This enabled a new approach that made it possible to produce vehicles (and components) in one ASEAN nation to serve the whole regional block, allowing better economies of scale and more efficient production.